X-Ray Diffraction what it is? Does X-Ray Diffraction is a good technique for the identification of material structure?
|X-Ray Diffraction machine|
|Electromagnetic spectrum for X-Ray Diffraction|
- What is X-Ray Diffraction (XRD)
- Principle of XRD
- Bragg’s equation of XRD
- Application of XRD
1.What is X-Ray Diffraction (XRD)?
X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) is nondestructive qualitative technique to identify the physical property, chemical composition and crystallographic structure of material. XRD plays critical role to identify the material which is not available in single crystal form.
XRD is an essential technique for
- Identification of crystalline compound
- Quantitative analysis of polyphasic mixtures
- To study the long-range atomic structure of the crystal
- Physical analysis of crystalline aggregate (texture, size, lattice Microstrain)
An ocean wave striking a lighthouse produces secondary circular waves emanating from the lighthouse, so an X-ray striking an electron produces secondary spherical waves emanating from the electron. This phenomenon is known as elastic scattering, and the electron (or lighthouse) is known as the scatterer.
2.What is Principle of XRD:
XRD analysis is based on constructive interference of monochromatic X-Ray and a crystalline sample: X-Rays are generated by the cathode ray tube are filtered to produce monochromatic radiation, rays accurately parallel to concentrate, and directed towards to the sample.
3. Bragg’s Equation of XRD:
4. Application of XRD:
- XRD is widely used for characterisation of crystalline material
- XRD is useful to determine the physical properties of a molecule like size, lecture, lattice
- Determination of unknown solid which is critical to studies in geology, material science, engineering, biology, and environmental science
- Make a textual measurement such as the orientation of grains in a polycrystalline material.
Strength and limitation of XRD:
Strength of XRD:
- Minimum sample required for analysis
- A powerful and rapid technique for identification of the powdered material
- Data interpretation is relatively straight forward
- XRD is widely available
Limitations of XRD:
- For mixed material detection limit is 2% of the sample
- Homogeneous and single-phase material is best for the identification of unknown material.
- Peak overlay may occur and worsen for a high angle of reflection.
- For amorphous solid xrd will give a hump-like spectrum.
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