10 Principle of Quality Control instruments in pharma lab

Principle of Quality control instruments in Pharma lab

In the pharmaceutical industry, multiple instruments are used. In this article, we are going to explain the Principles of Quality Control instruments in the pharma lab.

   In the pharma industry number of instruments are used to produce, analyze, and pack the drug product. Some of the instruments we are going to learn today.

Principle of Quality Control instruments:

Here are the quality control lab equipment list and instruments used in the quality control department but not limit

  1. Principle of High-Performance Liquid Chromatography
  2. Principle of Gas Chromatography
  3. Principle of UV Visible spectrophotometer
  4. Principle of Infrared spectrophotometer
  5. Principle of Karl Fischer
  6. Principle of pH
  7. Principle of potentiometer
  8. Principle of polarimeter
  9. Principle of Thin layer chromatography
  10. Principle of Refractometer
         There are the most common instruments used in the quality control department that helps to generate data related to the drug product, on the basis of generated data we could able to say pass or fail or not meeting the acceptance criteria of the drug product.
    Let’s see the quality control lab equipment list and the principle of Quality Control Instruments.

1. Principle of High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC):

     There are two main types of chromatography that are, 
1. Gas chromatography and 
2. Liquid chromatography.
  In the case of HPLC, the liquid is used as a mobile phase due to that it is called liquid chromatography. 
And in the case of GC, gas is used as mobile due to that we called it a Gas chromatography.
  HPLC is a widely used, high accuracy, high-performance technique to analyze the drug product. HPLC is used for the detection of % drug products present in the unknown samples.
  This technique is a Quantitative type of technique where the present amount of drugs can find out from drug products.
The principle of HPLC is as below;

HPLC is separation technique of the components of mixture by using solid stationary phase and liquid mobile phase. 


2. Principle of Gas chromatography (GC): 

     GC is also a separation technique but here mechanism is somewhat different than HPLC. In this chromatography, gas is used to carry the sample to be analyzed.


The principle of GC is as below;

GC is a separation technique is based on the principle of adsorption of gases or vapours of a liquid by an adsorbent.


3. Principle of  UV visible spectrophotometer (UV visible):

UV visible spectrophotometer also a widely used technique to identify and analyzed the drug in the pharmaceutical industry.
   In UV visible spectroscopy can be analyzed Quantitative analysis as well as Qualitative analysis.

The principle of UV visible spectroscopy is as below;

When a beam of monochromatic light is passes through the homogeneous absorbing medium, the rate of decrease in intensity of light is directly proportional to the concentration and path length of the cell.


4.  Principle of Infrared spectrophotometer (IR spectroscopy):

Infrared spectroscopy is a technique used to determine the functional group of the compound. This technique of analysis a qualitative type of technique where identification of drugs can find out through its functional group.


The principle of IR spectroscopy is as below;

The infrared spectroscopy is vibrational energy level changes when IR radiation passes through the material.


5. Principle of Karl Fischer (KF):

    KF is a technique to identify the water content or moisture present in the drug product. 


The principle of Karl Fischer is as below;

The titrimetric determination of water is based on the quantitative reaction of water with anhydrous sulfur dioxide and iodine in the presence of suitable base.


Also Read :

ICH guidelines in pharmaceutical industry

6. Principle of pH:

pH is nothing but the hydrogen ion present in the solution. Or the concentration of hydrogen ion in the solution.

The principle of pH is as below;

 pH is to measure the electromotive force generated by the system of two electrodes, an indicator electrode whose potential depends on the concentration of hydrogen ion and a reference electrode with known potential.


7.  Principle of potentiometer:

      It is a titrimetric method of determination of % drug availability. It is a quantitative type of technique to know the % of drug availability. 


The principle of a potentiometer is as below;

 When a steady current flows through a wire of uniform cross section the potential difference per unit length of the wire is constant through out the length of wire.   Or  potential difference across any two points of the wire is directly proportional to the length of the wire.


8. Principle of Polarimeter:

The polarimeter is used to detect the optically active property of the drug product.

The principle of polarimeter is as below;

 Polarimeter measures the rotation polarized light as it passes through an optically active fluid.


9. Principle of Thin Layer chromatography (TLC): 

TLC is also a well-known technique for the separation of solute from the solvents through the migration process. This is a Qualitative as well as Quantitative technique.

The principle of Thin Layer Chromatography ( TLC) is as below;

TLC is separation technique in which solute are deprecated by dymanic differential migration process in a system consisting of stationary phase and mobile phase.


10. Principle of Refractometer:

    A refractometer is a qualitative technique to measure the angle of rotation. 
    The refractometer measures the degree to which the light changes direction.

The principle of Refractometer is as below;

    It is a refraction based on the speed of light that passes in the different mediums.

These are the 10 principles of Quality Control instruments. Quality control lab equipment list Which will help for the interview.

You can also visit the pharmabeej channel to watch the principle of Quality control instruments in video form.

Youtube Channel:  Pharmabeej

Thanks For Reading,

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Quality Control Instruments HPLC

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