30 Physical properties and Chemical properties- Ultimate guide

      In the world every matter having physical properties and chemical properties. Without physical property, there will not be any matter on the earth.
           There are two types of properties for every matter of physical property and chemical property. Today you will get a brief idea of physical properties of matter.

 So today we are going to discuss the physical properties of matter.

    If you are looking for physical properties definitions, this will be the ultimate guide and ready reference for you. 

What is a physical property?

Physical properties are those property which can be measure by its appearance without changing chemical identity.

The physical property can change the arrangement of the sample but not the structure of its molecule.

In short physical property might have involved in physical change but not in a chemical change. 

If the chemical change occurs the observed characteristics is a chemical property.
    In physical properties there are two different types, one is Intensive property and other is Extensive property which depends on the nature and characteristics of matter.

1. Intensive property:

It is a property that depends on the type of matter in a sample, not on amount of matter. 

For more understanding, the properties such as colour, odour are the example of the intensive property.

2. Extensive property: 

It is a property that depends on the amount of matter in a sample. 

For better understanding, the properties such as mass, volume but not limited to are the extensive properties.

Physical property
Physical property

List of physical properties and chemical properties:

  1. Description
  2. Identification
  3. Sampling
  4. GRN
  5. A.R.No.
  6. pH
  7. Solubility
  8. Conductivity
  9. Heavy metal
  10. Loss on drying
  11. Residue on ignition
  12. Loss on ignition
  13. Sulphated ash
  14. Ash content
  15. Melting point
  16. Boiling point
  17. Freezing point
  18. Density
  19. Bulk density
  20. Tap density
  21. Specific gravity
  22. Viscosity
  23. Water content
  24. Particle size
  25. Limit test
  26. Specific optical rotation
  27. Refractive index
  28. Acidity
  29. Alkalinity
  30. Residual solvent

Definitions of physical properties:

Que: What is Description?
Ans: Description is a test to perform for verification of a drug substance on the basis of its appearance and nature.

Physical property
Physical property

Que: What is Identification?
Ans: Identification is a test to perform for proving the drug substance identity by using different techniques like UV, IR, TLC, HPLC etc.

Que: Definition is sampling?

Ans: Sampling is processed to withdraw a smaller portion of the sample as representative of the whole batch for analysis.

Que: What is GRN?

Ans: It is a good received note for any drug substance which is received by the organisation as an intimation.

Que: What is A.R.No?

Ans: It is an inhouse reference number given to the sample for easy identification.

Que: Definition of pH?

Ans: pH is a measure of hydrogen ion concentration present in the solution.

Que: Definition of Solubility?

Ans: Solubility is a test to check the sample ability to dissolve in a solvent.

Physical property
Solubility chart

Que: Definition of Conductivity?

Ans: Conductivity is the ability of a sample to conduct the electricity. 

Que: Definition of Heavy metal?

Ans: It is a test to measure the level of harmful metals present in the sample.

Que: Definition of Loss on drying?

Ans: It is a loss of weight of the sample after drying on a specified condition.

Que: Definition of Residue on ignition?

Ans: It is a leftover residue of sample on ignition.

Que: Definition of Loss on Ignition?

Ans: It is same like as loss in drying only perform at high temperature.

Que: Definition of sulphates ash?

Ans: Sulphates ash is a left out incombustible material present in the sample after burned.

Que: Definition of Ash content?

Ans: Refer to sulphated ash.

Que: Definition of a melting point?

Ans: It is a temperature at which a given solid start to melt.

Que: Definition of a boiling point?

Ans: It is a temperature at which a given liquid start to boil.

Que: Definition of a freezing point?

Ans: It is a temperature at which a given liquid start to freeze.

Que: Definition of Density?

Ans: Density is a quantity of a mass od a sample per unit volume.


where D is the density
m is mass,
v is volume

Que: Definition of Bulk density?

Ans: It is an untapped volume of a mass of a sample.

Que: Definition of Tap density?

Ans: It is a tapped volume of a mass of a sample.

Que: Definition of specific gravity?

Ans: It is a ratio of a density of a sample to the density of standard. 
     It is also known as relative density

Que: Definition of viscosity?

Ans: Viscosity is a resistance of the flow of liquid.

Que: Definition of water content?

Ans: Water content is nothing but moisture present in a sample.

Que: Definition of particle size?

Ans: It is a test to determine the size of the particle which is present in the sample.

Que: Definition of a limit test? 

Ans: The limit test is defined as a quantitative or semi-quantitative test designed to identify and control of small impurities which are likely to be present in a substance. 

Que: Definition of specific optical rotation?

Ans: Specific Optical rotation of a substance is an angle of rotation when plane-polarized light passed through it.

Que: Definition of the refractive index?

Ans: Refractive index is defined as the ratio of the speed of light in vacuum to the speed of light in the medium.

Que: Definition of acidity?

Ans: Acidity is a level of acid in a substance.

Que: Definition of alkalinity?

Ans: Alkalinity is a measure of capacity to neutralize the acid.

Que: Definition of residual solvent?

Ans: Residual solvent is defined as the organic volatile chemicals that are used or produced in the manufacturing of a drug substance or excipient or drug product.

Also read: Infrared spectroscopy

Chemical Properties
Chemical Properties


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